If you get a chance take a look at either or both of these websites.
Diabetes= ‘to siphon’ Mellitus= ‘sweet’: characterized by sweet urine
“DM is not a single disorder but a group of chronic disorders of the pancreas resulting in inappropriate hyperglycemia caused by relative or total insufficiency of insulin, or cellular resistance to insulin.”
Polyuria: caused by Serum hyperosmolarlity drawing fluid from intracellular to extracellular—[so you’re dehydrating the cells, forcing water into the blood.] The excess sugar in the blood acts as an osmotic diuretic: all the extra water in the blood is forced to urine.
Glucosuria: when blood levels of glucose are higher than 180, glucose is also forced into the urine. Which is probably a good trick of the body to get rid of excess urine.
Polydispia: thirst is caused by dehydration of the cells and corresponding release of water into the urine.
Polyphagia: because the cells are starving for glucose [despite the fact that they’re swimming in it], they initiate hunger response. Fatigue follows this lack of fuel in cells.
Blurred vision: macular edema is likely to have blurred vision, making it hard to do things like read and drive. In some cases, the vision will get better or worse during the day. [wiki] Results from swelling of the lenses of the eyes due to osmotic pressure. Extreme: Loss of vision from hemorrhagic damage due to diabetic retinopathy. [wiki]
Ketoacidosis: resulting from rapid, excessive breakdown of fats in the body. Bicarbonate is not produced to balance ketones from this catabolism, and the body becomes acidic. The body is also dehydrating. Scary because: CNS is depressed in the presence of ketones and acids, can cause coma and death. This is why we admit people to the hospital as soon as their blood glucose is over 250, ketones are present in the urine, or decreasing pH. Ketoacidosis and polyuria is followed by hypokalemia [obligate loss of potassium from kidney tubules as a cationic partner to the negatively charged ketone]
Risk factors in Type 2 diabetes:
Obesity [at least 20% over desired body weight] creates “peripheral insulin resistance” by ‘decreasing the number of insulin receptor sites in skeletal muscles and adipose tissue.’ Obesity also impairs beta cell secretion.
Race: Native Americans are 2.2 times as likely to have DM than whites, Hispanics 1.8 times, Blacks 1.7 times. 8.7% of white Americans have DM.
HTN, low HDL, or high triglycerides